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Quezon City (UK/ˈkzɒn/US/ˈksɒn, -sɔːn, -sn/;[8][9][10][11] TagalogLungsod Quezon locally [luŋˈsod ˈkɛson]), also known as the City of Quezon and abbreviated as Q.C. (Kyusi),[12][13][14] is the most populous city in the Philippines. With over 3 million people, the city is known for its ethnic and cultural diversity, Philippine entertainment industry, government edifices and its sprawling metropolitan area. It has a diverse and robust economy, and hosts businesses in a broad range of professional and cultural fields.

Quezon City is a planned city. It lies on the hills on the northeast of Manila and covers an area of 166.20 square kilometres (64.17 sq mi), making it the largest city in Metro Manila in terms of land area. The city is the home to several executive branches, mostly situated at the National Government Center on or around the Quezon Memorial Circle, and the Lower House of the Philippine Congress, located at the National Government Center II in Batasan Hills. Most of the northeastern part of the city lies at the Sierra Madre mountain range, with elevations reaching more than 300 meters.

It was founded on October 12, 1939, and was named after its founder, Manuel L. Quezon, the 2nd President of the Philippines. It was intended to replace Manila as the national capital. The city was proclaimed as such in 1948, though a significant number of government buildings remained in Manila. Quezon City held status as the official capital until 1976[15] when a presidential decree was issued to reinstate and designate Manila as the capital and Metro Manila as the seat of government.[16]

Up until 1951, the Mayor of Quezon City is appointed by the President of the Philippines. First set of locally elected individuals were elected the same year through Republic Act No. 537. The city's Six Congressional Districts represents the city in the Lower House of the Congress of the Philippines.

History[edit]

Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon.

Before Quezon City was created, its land was settled by the small individual towns of San Francisco del MonteNovaliches, and Balintawak. On August 23, 1896, the Katipunan, led by its Supremo Andrés Bonifaciolaunched the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire at the house of Melchora Aquino in Pugad Lawin (now known as Balintawak).

In the early 20th century, President Manuel L. Quezon dreamt of a city that would become the future capital of the country to replace Manila. It is believed that his earlier trip in Mexico CityMexico influenced his vision.[17][18]

In 1938, President Quezon created the People's Homesite Corporation and purchased 15.29 km2 (6 sq mi) from the vast Diliman Estate of the Tuason family; this piece of land became known then as Barrio Obrero ("Workers' Village"). The National Assembly of the Philippines passed Commonwealth Act 502, known as the Charter of Quezon City, originally proposed as "Balintawak City; Assemblymen Narciso Ramos and Ramon Mitra Sr. successfully lobbied the assembly to name the city after the incumbent president. President Quezon allowed the bill to lapse into law without his signature on October 12, 1939, thus establishing Quezon City.[17][18]

When Quezon City was created in 1939, the following barrios or sitios: Balingasa, Balintawak, Galas, Kaingin, Kangkong, La Loma, Malamig, Masambong, Matalahib, San Isidro, San Jose, Santol, and Tatalon from Caloocan; Cubao, the western half of Diliman, Kamuning, New Manila, Roxas, and San Francisco del Monte from San Juan; Balara, Barangka, the eastern half of Diliman, Jesus de la Peña and Krus na Ligas from Marikina; Libis, Santolan and Ugong Norte from Pasig and some barrios from Montalban and San Mateo were to be given to the new capital city. Instead of opposing them, the six towns willingly gave land to Quezon City in the belief that it would benefit the country's new capital. However, in 1941, the area within Wack Wack Golf and Country Club was reverted to Mandaluyong, and Barangka and Jesus de la Peña to Marikina. In addition, the land of Camp Crame was originally part of San Juan. On January 1, 1942, President Quezon issued an executive order from the tunnel of Corregidor designating Jorge Vargas Mayor of Greater Manila, a new political entity comprising, aside from Manila proper, Quezon City, Caloocan, Pasay, San Juan, Mandaluyong, Makati, and Parañaque.[19] Greater Manila would later be expanded to include Las Piñas, Malabon, and Navotas.

Imperial Japanese forces occupied Quezon City in 1942 during World War II. In October of that year, the Japanese authorities organized the City of Greater Manila into twelve districts, two of which were formed by dividing Quezon City: Balintawak which consisted of San Francisco del Monte, Galas, and La Loma; and Diliman which consisted of Diliman proper, Cubao, and the University District. In 1945, combined Filipino and American troops under the United States ArmyPhilippine Commonwealth Army, and Philippine Constabulary, with help from recognized guerrilla units, liberated and recaptured Quezon City in a few months, expelling Imperial Japanese forces. Heavy fighting occurred near Novaliches, which at that time was in Caloocan, and New Manila which was a strongpoint. Smaller actions were fought at Barrio Talipapa and the University District. Toward the end of the Battle of Manila, Pres. Sergio Osmeña dissolved the Greater Manila Complex, which included the Japanese-created districts of Balintawak and Diliman which had been formed from the prewar Quezon City.

After the war, Republic Act No. 333, which redefined the Caloocan–Quezon City boundary, was signed by President Elpidio Quirino on July 17, 1948, declaring Quezon City to be the national capital, and specifying the city's area to be 156.60 km2 (60 sq mi). The barrios of Baesa, Bagbag, Banlat, Kabuyao, Novaliches Proper, Pasong Putik, Pasong Tamo, Pugad Lawin, San Bartolome, and Talipapa, which belonged to Novaliches and had a combined area of about 8,100 hectares, were taken from Caloocan and ceded to Quezon City.[20] This caused the territorial division of Caloocan into two non-contiguous parts, the South section being the more urbanized part, and the North half being sub-rural. On June 16, 1950, the Quezon City Charter was revised by Republic Act No. 537, changing the city's boundaries to an area of 153.59 km2 (59 sq mi).[17][18] Exactly six years after on June 16, 1956, more revisions to the city's land area were made by Republic Act No. 1575, which defined its area as 151.06 km2 (58 sq mi). According to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and Geoscience Australia on their study earthquake impact and risk assessment on the Greater Metropolitan Manila Area, the total area of Quezon City stood at 165.33 km2 (64 sq mi).[21][22]

On October 1, 1975, Quezon City was the actual site of the "Thrilla in Manila" boxing fight between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier, which took place at the Araneta Coliseum. It was renamed as the "Philippine Coliseum" for the event.

On November 7, 1975, the promulgation of Presidential Decree No. 824 of President Ferdinand Marcos established Metro Manila.[23][17][18] Quezon City became one of Metro Manila's 17 cities and municipalities. The next year, Presidential Decree No. 940 transferred the capital back to Manila on June 24, 1976.[24] On March 31, 1978, President Marcos ordered the transfer of the remains of President Quezon from Manila North Cemetery to the completed Quezon Memorial Monument within Elliptical Road.[25][26] On February 22, 1986, the Quezon City portion of the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (between Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo) became the venue of the bloodless People Power Revolution that overthrew Marcos.

On February 23, 1998, Republic Act. No. 8535 was signed by President Fidel Ramos.[17][18] The Act provided for the creation of the City of Novaliches comprising the 15 northernmost barangays of Quezon City.[27] However, in the succeeding plebiscite on October 23, 1999, an overwhelming majority of Quezon City residents rejected the secession of Novaliches.

Quezon City is the first local government in the Philippines with a computerized real estate assessment and payment system. The city government developed a database system in 2015 that contains around 400,000 property units with capability to record payments.[17][18]

Geography[edit]

Elevation map of Quezon City. The drop in elevation along the eastern border of the city follows the length of the West Valley Fault.

The city lies on the Guadalupe Plateau, a relatively high plateau at the northeast of the metropolis situated between the lowlands of Manila to the southwest and the Marikina River Valley to the east. The southern portion is drained by the narrow San Juan River and its tributaries to Pasig River, while running in the northern portions of the city is the equally-narrow Tullahan River. The West Valley Fault traverses the eastern border of the city.

Quezon City is bordered by Manila to the southwest, by Caloocan and Valenzuela City to the west and northwest. To the south lie San Juan and Mandaluyong, while Marikina and Pasig border the city to the southeast. To the north across Marilao River lies San Jose del Monte in the province of Bulacan, while to the east lie Rodriguez and San Mateo, both in the province of Rizal.

The city can be divided into a number of areas. The southern portion of the city is divided into a number of districts including Diliman, Commonwealth, the Project areas, Cubao, Kamias, Kamuning, New Manila, San Francisco del Monte, and Santa Mesa Heights. The northern half of the city is often called Novaliches and contains the areas of Fairview and Lagro. Most of these areas have no defined boundaries and are primarily residential in nature.

Climate[edit]

Quezon City features a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am), with prominent dry season from December to April, in which in turn, divided into cool and warm dry seasons, and a prolonged wet season from May to November that brings heavy rains in some areas.


Master Plans[edit]

In 1938, President Manuel L. Quezon made a decision to push for a new capital city. Manila was getting crowded, and his military advisors reportedly told him that Manila, being by the bay, was an easy target for bombing by naval guns in case of attack.[17][18] The new city will be located at least 15 km (9 mi) away from Manila Bay, which is beyond the reach of naval guns. Quezon contacted William E. Parsons, an American architect and planner, who had been the consulting architect for the islands early in the American colonial period. Parsons came over in the summer of 1939 and helped select the Diliman (Tuason) estate as the site for the new city. Unfortunately, he died later that year, leaving his partner Harry Frost to take over. Frost collaborated with Juan Arellano, engineer A.D. Williams, and landscape architect and planner Louis Croft to craft a grand master plan for the new capital. The plan was approved by the Philippine authorities in 1941.[17][18]

The core of the new city was to be a 400-hectare (990-acre) Central Park, about the size of New York's Central Park, and defined by the NorthSouth (Timog)East and West Avenues. On one corner of the proposed Diliman Quadrangle was delineated a 25-hectare (62-acre) elliptical site. This was the planned location of a large Capitol Building to house the Philippine Legislature and ancillary structures for the offices of representatives.[17][18] On either side of the giant ellipse were supposed to have been the new Malacañang Palace on North Avenue (site of the present-day Veterans Memorial Hospital), and the Supreme Court Complex along East Avenue (now the site of East Avenue Medical Center). The three branches of government were to be finally and efficiently located in close proximity to each other.[17][18]

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Quezon City
YearPop.±% p.a.
193939,013—    
1948107,977+11.98%
1960397,990+11.48%
1970754,452+6.60%
1975956,864+4.88%
19801,165,865+4.03%
19901,669,776+3.66%
19951,989,419+3.34%
20002,173,831+1.92%
20072,679,450+2.93%
20102,761,720+1.11%
20152,936,116+1.17%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[5][30][31][32]

According to the 2015 Census, the population of the city was 2,936,116, making it by far the most populous city in the Philippines. This figure is higher by more than 1.1 million from Manila, the country's second-most populous city.

The increase in the population of the city has been dramatic considering that it was only founded/consolidated (and sparsely populated) in 1939. Quezon City became the biggest city in terms of population in the Philippines in 1990 when it finally surpassed the number of inhabitants of the densely populated City of Manila. Quezon City's population continued to increase and went on to become the first Philippine city (and as of 2017 the only city) to reach 2 million people (in the late 1990s). The population is projected to reach 3 million people between the 2015 and 2020 census years and 4 million people between the 2025 and 2030 census years.[33]

The trend is also seen in the significant increase in the percentage share of Quezon City to the total population of what is now called Metro Manila. Its share comes from a low of less than 10% in the 1950s to 21.0%[34] in 1980 and then to 22.8% in 2015.

Quezon City is exceptionally large that if it is considered as a province, its population will be larger than 72 provinces and rank seventh largest in the country based on the 2015 Census.

Religion[edit]

Quezon City is predominantly Roman Catholic with roughly 90% affiliation in the population; Novaliches Diocese had a 90% Roman Catholic adherence while the Diocese of Cubao had a Roman Catholic adherence of more than 88% (Catholic Diocese Hierarchy, 2003). In 2002, Quezon City was made an episcopal see for two new Catholic dioceses: Cubao and Novaliches, as the very populous Archdiocese of Manila was carved up and five new dioceses created.[citation needed]

A number of religious orders have set up convents and seminaries in the city. Various Protestant faiths have seen a significant increase in membership over recent decades[35][36] and are well represented in Quezon City. While the Islamic faith has its largest concentrations in the south of the Philippines, there is a significant population in Quezon City. The Salam compound in Barangay Culiat houses one of the area's landmark mosques. Iglesia ni Cristo (INC) the second-largest Christian denomination in the country, also has a large number of adherents with their large central temple in the city.

Alternative incarnations of Christianity are promoting their version of faith in the Philippines. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has the Manila Philippines Temple and the Missionary Training Center located at Temple Drive Greenmeadows Subdivision of the city. A branch of Jesus Is Lord Church which known as JIL, a Christian megachurch. The Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Also known as the "Aglipayan Church") has three parishes located in the city, the Parish of the Crucified Lord in Apolonio Samson, Parish of the Holy Cross in Escale, University of the Philippines Diliman and the Parish of the Resurrection in Balingasa. The Kingdom of Jesus Christ, The Name Above Every Name of Pastor Apollo C. Quiboloy is located at Novaliches (Central Office), EDSA–Cubao, Muñoz, and Fairview. The biggest concentration of the Jesus Miracle Crusade of Evangelist Wilde E. Almeda is also located in the city. The Philippine Branch office of the Jehovah's Witnesses is located along Roosevelt Avenue. The seat of the Presiding Bishop, the Cathedral of Sts. Mary and John of the Episcopal Church, the national offices of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines, the National Council of Churches in the Philippines as well as a number of Protestant seminaries are located in the city. The headquarters of the UCKG HelpCenter (Universal Church of the Kingdom of God) is located at the former Quezon Theater building. The headquarters of Bread of Life Ministries International is a Christian megachurch located in its own ministry center on Mother Ignacia Ave. in scout area. New Life NorthMetro, A satellite church of ANLCC (Alabang Newlife Christian Center) is located in Cinema 6, 4th level of Trinoma Mall. The Church So Blessed, also a Christian church, is located in Commonwealth Avenue. People of Grace Fellowship is another Christian church located in Kamuning Road, corner Judge Jimenez. Members Church of God International (Ang Dating Daan) are also established in the city. Nichiren Buddhists are also established in the city, with many thousands of adherents attending worship services at Soka Gakkai International (SGI) Philippines headquarters at Quezon Memorial Circle.

Economy[edit]

Eastwood City in Libis is the home to country's first and largest cyberpark.

Quezon City is a hub for business and commerce, as a center for banking and finance, retailing, transportation, tourism, real estate, entertainment, new mediatraditional media, telecommunications, advertising, legal servicesaccountancy, healthcare, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the Philippines. The National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines which annually publishes the Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index (CMCI), ranks the cities, municipalities and provinces of the country according to their economic dynamism, government efficiency and infrastructure. Quezon City was the Most Competitive City in the country from 2015-2019 assuring that the city is consistently one of the best place to live in and do business. It earned the Hall of Fame Award in 2020 for its consecutive top performance.[37]

Quezon City is home to the Philippines' major broadcasting networks. Television companies such as ABS-CBNRPNGMA NetworkINC TVUNTVNet 25PTV, and IBC all have their headquarters within the city limits. TV5 also had its headquarters in Quezon City since 1992, but it moved out to Mandaluyong in 2013. Its transmitter in Novaliches is still being used and operated by the network.[38]

Quezon City bills itself as the ICT capital of the Philippines.[39] The city has 33 ICT parks according to PEZA, which includes the Eastwood City Cyberpark in Libis, the first and largest IT Park in the country.[40]

Culture[edit]

Sport and recreation[edit]

Quezon City is the home to notable sporting and recreational venues such as the Amoranto Sports Complex, Quezon City Sports Club and the Smart Araneta Coliseum.

The city is the home of the Philippine Basketball Association.

The Quezon City Capitals, the city's professional men's basketball team, plays at the Maharlika Pilipinas Basketball League.

Quezon City will host some matches in the 2023 FIBA Basketball World Cup at the Smart Araneta Coliseum.

Government[edit]

Tomás Morató, the first mayor of Quezon City.

Like other cities in the Philippines, Quezon City is governed by a mayor and vice mayor elected to three-year terms. The mayor is the executive head and leads the city's departments in executing the city ordinances and improving public services. The vice mayor heads the legislative council consisting of 24 members. These councilors represent the six legislative districts of the city. The council is in charge of formulating and enacting the city.

Quezon City, being a part of the Metro Manila region, has its mayor in the Metro Manila Council headed by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA). This council formulates development plans that seek to solve the problems and improve the conditions in the metropolis.

Mayors[edit]

President Manuel L. Quezon acted as mayor from October 12 to November 4, 1939, pending the resignation from another position of his intended appointee, Tomas B. Morato. Since a president can, under Philippine law, hold multiple portfolios inferior to his office, Quezon took the position of mayor in a concurrent capacity. However, it is erroneous to view him as the first mayor, as a president holding a concurrent position is not listed in the roster of incumbents for those offices.

Barangays[edit]

Quezon City is made up of 142 barangays (the smallest local government units) which handle governance in a much smaller area. These barangays are grouped into the aforementioned legislative districts. Each district, in turn, is represented in the House of Representatives.

Public order and safety[edit]

The national headquarters of the Philippine National Police
General Headquarters of the AFP in Camp Aguinaldo

Peace and order, which includes traffic management of the city is administered by the Quezon City Department of Public Order and Safety,[41] whose offices are found inside the Quezon City Hall Complex,[42] is headed by retired QCPD District Director – Police Chief Superintendent Elmo San Diego.[41]

Emergency management for the city is administered by the Quezon City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council headed by Mayor Herbert Bautista[43] and Quezon City Disaster Risk Reduction & Management Office[44] headed by its administrator; Dr. Noel Lansang.[42] The QCDRRMO will move out of the DPOS Building once construction of the QCDRRMO Building, near Gate 7 of the City Hall Complex, is completed 4th Quarter of 2014.[44]

The National Headquarters of the Philippine National Police[45] is located inside Camp Rafael Crame in Santolan, Quezon City and National Headquarters of the Bureau of Fire Protection[46] is located in Agham road, Quezon City. Supporting the PNP in administration, rehabilitation and protection of prisoners within the city is the Quezon City Jail and is run by Officers and Enlisted Personnel of the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology.[47] The BJMP National Headquarters is located along Mindanao Avenue in Project 8.[48]

The Quezon City Police District[49] of the National Capital Region Police Office[50] is responsible for law enforcement in the city. Police structure within Quezon City is centralized and its command center found inside Camp Karingal, Sikatuna Village, Quezon City.[49] The QCPD Police sectors are divided to twelve stations.

The Quezon City Fire District is a division of the Bureau of Fire Protection National Capital Region which provides fire and emergency services to the city. Similarly, there are nineteen fire sub-stations strategically located within the city. District Headquarters are located inside the Quezon City Hall Complex.[42]

The Armed Forces of the Philippines'[51] General Headquarters[52] is in Camp Emilio Aguinaldo[53] in Murphy, Quezon City. The AFP Joint Task Force NCR[54] is also housed inside Camp Aguinaldo. Several reserve units of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, which include the 1502nd Infantry Brigade (Ready Reserve)201st Infantry Battalion (Ready Reserve),[55] 202nd Infantry Battalion (Ready Reserve) of the Army Reserve Command[56] and the 11th Air Force Group (Reserve)[57] of the Air Force Reserve Command[58] are also found in Quezon City and may render assistance to this local government unit during emergencies.[59] The 105th Technical & Administrative Services Group (Reserve), specifically the 1st Technical & Administrative Services Unit (Ready Reserve) of the AFP Reserve Command[60] provide technical assistance to these maneuver units. Collectively, these units function similar to that of the US National Guard.

The Philippine Coast Guard Auxiliary,[61] 106th Coast Guard Auxiliary Squadron, provides water search and rescue capabilities to disaster response agencies of Quezon City. It is headquartered at Barangay Quirino 2-C.

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