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What do you know about the menstrual cycle?


What do you know about the menstrual cycle?

What do you know about the menstrual cycle?

Menstruation or the menstrual cycle, as it is known generally, is a normal part of the reproductive process and is basically a process to get rid of the lining of the uterus and occurs once a month, or every 28 days, as part of the reproductive system.
An egg is released every month when the girl reaches puberty and if the egg is not fertilized, that is, if the girl does not conceive, the egg, along with the lining of the uterus, is shed from the body through the vagina, and this process is called the "menstrual cycle".
The menstrual cycle in girls usually begins at any time from 8 to 16 years and lasts for 5-7 days, and the flow varies according to the girl, as some girls suffer from severe symptoms such as cramps and pain, while others do not feel anything but some discomfort. It may also affect your mood because your period is controlled by hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle and its stages

The menstrual cycle begins when the levels of the hormone estrogen, or what is known as the female hormone, are high, and this hormone is responsible for the lining of the uterus so that the uterus becomes thick enough to support pregnancy, at the same time the egg in one of the ovaries reaches maturity and moves away from the ovaries, and this is known as ovulation.
The egg travels down the fallopian tube towards the uterus, and this stage takes a few days, and the woman may become pregnant at that time. When the egg reaches the uterus, it stays there, and if it is still unfertilized, it breaks down and is eliminated from the body along with the uterine lining.

Ovarian cycle

Follicular stage - During this first stage of the ovarian cycle, the ovarian follicles are stimulated with FSH, mature and prepare for the release of an egg, and the last part of this stage interferes with the proliferative stage of the uterine cycle.
Ovulation phase - In the second stage, the mature egg is released from the ovarian follicles into the oviduct, after which the egg travels to the fallopian tube from salpingo-oophoric and towards the uterus.
The luteal phase - the final stage of the ovarian cycle is the beginning of menstruation. If fertilization is not complete, hormone levels drop, the egg dissolves, and the menstrual cycle begins.

Uterine cycle

Reproduction phase - In this stage estrogen causes the lining of the uterus to grow, and this happens as the follicles mature, as the uterus prepares to receive the egg.

Secretory stage - At this stage, the body prepares to support pregnancy by increasing blood flow and secretions in the uterus, and reducing muscle contraction in the uterus to ensure that the egg implants steadily.

PMS symptoms

Your body will prepare for this time of the month and you will notice signs of this before the start of your period, and these symptoms collectively are called premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual tension (PMT) because they affect emotional, psychological, and physical factors all at the same time

Some of the symptoms include: 

  • Flatulence
  • acne
  • Headache, including migraine
  • Irritability
  • Pain, especially back pain
  • Feeling weak or depressed
  • Insomnia
  • Lack of focus
  • Breast pain, or even some swelling
  • Slight weight gain
  • A tendency to eat in large quantities
Most of the time, these symptoms disappear at the beginning of the period. Sometimes the symptoms may persist at the time of bleeding, but soon they disappear until the beginning of the next period.
Some factors may contribute to the duration, intensity, or type of symptoms. These factors may include stress, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle, nutritional deficiencies, high caffeine consumption, and genetics.
Simple changes in your lifestyle can go a long way in relieving the symptoms and the anxiety they cause.